Bharatpur is a
city in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It was founded by
Maharaja Suraj Mal in 1733. Located in Mewat region, Bharatpur
was once an impregnable, well-fortified city, and the capital of
a kingdom ruled by Jat maharajas. The trio of Bharatpur, Deeg
and Dholpur has played an important part in the Jat history of
Rajasthan. Located 50 km west of the city of Agra (the city of
the Taj Mahal), it is also the administrative headquarters of
The town was named Bharatpur after Bharata, a brother of
Lord Rama, who’s other brother Laxman is the family deity of the
erstwhile royal family of Bharatpur. The name 'Laxman' was
engraved on the arms, seals and other emblems of the state.
The city and the fort of Bharatpur
have been believed to be founded by Lord Aditya Consul in the early
17th century, the majesty established a state in the Mewat region
south of Delhi, with its capital at Deeg. Leaders like Gokula, Raja
Ram, Churaman and Badan Singh brought the Jats together and moulded
them into a force to be reckoned with. Maharaja Suraj Mal was the
state's greatest ruler; he made the state a formidable force in the
region. Suraj Mal took over the site of Bharatpur from Khemkaran, a
son of Rustam, and established it as the capital of his state. He
fortified the city by building a massive wall around it.
During the British Raj, the state covered an area of 5,123 km, its
rulers enjoyed a salute of 17 guns. The state acceded unto the
dominion of India in 1947. It was merged with three nearby princely
states to form the 'Matsya Union', which in turn was merged with
other adjoining territories to create the present-day state of
Rajasthan. Chronology of Bharatpur rulers.
The Royal House of Bharatpur traces their history to the 11th
century AD. They claim descent from Yadav Vanshi Sind Pal, common
ancestor with the House of Karauli. Than Pal, twelfth in descent
from Sind Pal, left several sons, including Dharam Pal, the eldest
son and progenitor of Karauli. Madan Pal, the third son of Than Pal,
being ancestor of Bharatpur. His descendant, Bal Chand or Balchandra
of Sinsini, having no issue by his wife, took a Jat lady as a
concubine, by whom he had two sons named Birad (Bijji) and Surad (Sijji).
Birad was the ancestor of Thakur Khanu Chand, with whom we treat.
The descendants of Khanu Chand became leaders of the Jat race and
rose to considerable power during the Mughal decline in the late
The Jat rulers of Bharatpur were from Sinsinwar clan. Before the
formation of Bharatpur state the capital of Sinsinwars was at
Sinsini earlier was known as 'Shoor saini' and its inhabitants were
known as 'Saur Sen'. The influence of Saur Sen people can be judged
from the fact that the dialect of the entire north India at one time
was known as 'Saursaini'.
Shoor Sain people were Chandra Vanshi kshatriyas. Lord Krishna was
also born in vrishni branch of Chandravansh. A group of Yadavas was
follower of Shiv and Vedic God in Sindh. Some inscriptions and coins
of these people have been found in 'Mohenjo Daro'. ' Shiv Shani Sevi'
words have been found engraved on one inscription. Yajur Veda
mentions 'Shinay Swah'. 'Sini Isar' was found on one gold coin.
Atharva Veda mentions 'Sinwali' for Sini God.
The above group of Yadavas came back from Sindh to Brij area and
occupied Bayana in Bharatpur district. After some struggle the 'Balai'
inhabitants were forced by Shodeo and Saini rulers to move out of
Brij land and thus they occupied large areas. 'Saur Saini' was
changed to 'ShinShoor' or 'Sinsini' after their God 'Shin'. These
people of Sinsini were called Sinsinwar. The chronology of Sinsinwar
Jat clan rulers of Bharastpur is as under:
Keoladeo National Park:
Now declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, duck-hunting reserve
of the Maharajas is one of the major wintering areas for large
numbers of aquatic birds from Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, China and
Siberia. Some 364 species of birds, including the rare Siberian
Crane, have been recorded in the park. The name "Keoladeo" is
derived from the name of an ancient Hindu temple devoted to Lord
Shiva in the sanctuary's central zone while the Hindi term 'Ghana'
implies dense, thick areas of forest cover.
The Keoladeo National Park or Keoladeo Ghana National Park formerly
known as the Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary in Rajasthan, India is a
famous avifauna sanctuary that sees (or saw) thousands of rare and
highly endangered birds such as the Siberian Crane come here during
the winter season. Over 230 species of birds are known to have made
the National Park their home. It is also a major tourist centre with
scores of ornithologists arriving here in the hibernal season. It
was declared a protected sanctuary in 1971. It is also a declared
World Heritage Site.
The sanctuary was created 250 years ago and is named after a
Keoladeo (Shiva) temple within its boundaries. Initially, it was a
natural depression; and was flooded after the Ajan Bund was
constructed by Maharaja Suraj Mal, the then ruler of the princely
state of Bharatpur, between 1726 to 1763. The bund was created at
the confluence of two rivers, the Gambhir and Banganga. The park was
a happy hunting ground for the maharajas of Bharatpur, a tradition
dating back to 1850, and duck shoots were organised yearly in honor
of the British viceroys. In one shoot alone in 1938, over 4,273
birds such as mallards and teals were killed by Lord Linlithgow, the
then Governor-General of India. After India's independence, the
rulers of the princely states were allowed shooting rights until
1972. In 1982, grazing was banned in the park, leading to violent
clashed between the local farmer and Gujjar communities and the
The sanctuary hosts a small wintering population of the rare
Siberian Cranes. Other species include the ruddy shelducks, gulls,
northern shovelers, northern pintails, coots, garganey, tufted ducks
and common pochard.
In late 2004 however, the Rajasthan government led by Vasundhara
Raje succumbed to pressure from farmers to prevent water from being
diverted to the sanctuary. The water supply to the park dropped from
540,000,000 to 18,000,000 cubic feet (15,000,000 to 510,000 m³). The
result was an ecological disaster with the marshlands turning dry
and inhospitable. Most of the birds flew off to alternate avenues as
far as Garhmukteshwar, Uttar Pradesh (90 km form New Delhi) on the
river Ganga for breeding. This resulted in many of the birds being
hunted for their meat.